“On 15 February 1877 not long after the formation of the Imperial Japanese Army a Kaikosha [officer’s club] was founded in Kudan in Tokyo as a meeting place for officers and as a reception hall. After that Kaikosha groups cropped up at divisional headquarters across the country.
“Kaikosha were soon incorporated and set about providing aid to wounded soldiers, supporting temples that consecrated war dead, publishing academic research and essays on military topics, and fostering friendships among fellow officers both in active service and in the reserves. These activities were funded by membership fees.”
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