“In the 1930 revue Parisette, the traditional [Takarazuka] white-face makeup was abandoned, and a self-consciously modern tone adopted.
“The Takarazuka became heavily influenced by the spectacular productions of Zeigfield and C.B. Cochran and the styles of Josephine Baker and Mistinguett.
“… This Westernized genre required prominent male roles, and , on the pretext that it was hard to find boys beautiful enough to match the ideals of the audience, girls were trained to appear as men. As Ian Buruma has remarked, this ‘goes to the heart of Japanese aesthetics’ based on a principle of depersonalization. No man can be as beautiful as a woman playing a man.”
– The Changing Room: Sex, Drag and Theatre, by Laurence Senelick, 2000
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