Tsitsihar (Qiqihar), Manchuria, c. 1940.

1940sGovernmentHistoric EventsPatriotism/Military
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Tsitsihar, Manchukuo, c. 1940.

“Geionmon Gate of Castle Wall, Tsitsihar,” ca. 1940.

“After Manchukuo was established, the Japanese state made the country’s more than forty prefectures compete with one another in a race to colonize Manchuria. The prefectures altogether sent a total of 322,000 farmers to Manchuria, but the winner, and therefore the most ‘patriotic’, was Nagano Prefecture. Nagano sent 33,741 colonists to Manchuria, about one-fourth of whom came from the Ina Valley.

“… The emigrants brought to the vast terrain of Manchuria the names of their ‘mother villages’ (bo-son) and established ‘branch villages’ (bun-son) of the same names. These names include Kawaji, Yasuoka, Chiyo, Kami-hisakata, Inatomi, Kono, Shimoina, Mibu, Fukihara, Inan, Minami-shinano, Achi, and Matsushima.”

Memory Maps: The State and Manchuria in Postwar Japan, by Mariko Tamanoi, 2009

Manchukuo (Manchuria), c. 1940, with the four major cities - Tsitsihar, Harbin, Mukden and Port Arthur - highlighted.

Manchukuo (Manchuria), c. 1940, and the major railways and roads connecting its four largest population centers – Port Arthur, Mukden (the largest), Harbin, and Tsitsihar – and its capital city, Hsingching [‘New Capital’, between Harbin & Mukden; now, Changchun] to the various areas of development in the colony.

From the wiki: “Qiqihar is one of the oldest cities in the northeast of China. The region was originally settled by nomadic Daur and Tungus herdsmen. (The city’s oldest mosque, the Bukui Mosque, actually predates the foundation of the city itself by seven years.) As the Czarist Russian eastward advance to the Pacific coast, Qiqihar became a major garrison center in 1674. In 1691, a stronghold was constructed in Qiqihar because of the Qing government’s campaigns against the Mongols. Around 1700 it was a center for Russo-Chinese trade.

“In 1903, the completion of the Chinese Eastern Railway made Qiqihar a center for communications between China and Russia. A network of lines radiating from Qiqihar was extended into the northwestern part of Heilongjiang Province including Jiagedaqi and Manzhouli in the late 1920s.

“After the Japanese began their occupation of Tsitsihar on November 19, 1931, Qiqihar was established as an administrative centre of the puppet Manchukuo government under pro-Japanese General Chang Chin-hui. Qiqihar was also established as the capital of Longjiang province, going by the name ‘Tsitsihar’. Tsitsihar became a major military base for the Japanese controlling northeastern China and its economic importance also grew rapidly. During the occupation, the Imperial Japanese Army established Unit 516 in Qiqihar for research into chemical warfare. (A major mustard gas tank left over from the Second Sino-Japanese War and buried underground was accidentally ruptured in August 2003, causing 43 injuries and one death.)

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