“The Battle of Pyongyang was the second major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95). It took place on 15 September 1894 in Pyongyang, Korea between the forces of Meiji Japan and Qing China. It is sometimes referred to archaically in Western sources as the ‘Battle of Ping-yang’.
“Prince Yamagata Aritomo’s First Army of the Imperial Japanese Army converged on Pyongyang from several directions on 15 September 1894, and in the morning made a direct attack on the north and southeast corners of the walled city under very little cover.
“The Chinese defense was strong, but was eventually outmaneuvered by an unexpected flanking attack by the Japanese from the rear, costing the Chinese very heavy losses compared to the Japanese.
“After the Battle of Pyongyang, the Japanese advanced north to the Yalu River without opposition. The Chinese had decided (as would the Russians ten years later in the Russo-Japanese War) to abandon northern Korea and defend from the northern bank of the Yalu River.
“Chinese casualties are estimated at 2,000 killed, and around 4,000 wounded. The Japanese lost 102 men killed, 433 wounded and 33 missing. After the Battle of Pyongyang, the Japanese army advanced north to the Yalu River without opposition.”